first_img Ko works at the University of California, Berkeley. Along with Heng Pan, Sang Ryu, Nipun Misra and Costas Grigoropoulos at Berkeley, and Hee Park at AppliFlex in Mountain View, California, Ko believes that a solution may have been found. The team created a LIFT-based process called Nanomaterial Enabled Laser Transfer (NELT) in order to create direct patterning process resulting in a high resolution while transferring the organic light emitting diode (OLED) without damage. Their work is described in Applied Physics Letters: “Nanomaterial enabled laser transfer for organic light emitting material direct writing.”“NELT process can be used for any kinds of heat sensitive organic material direct patterning and transfer,” Ko explains. “NELT process can achieve more versatile laser wavelength selection with one or two order smaller laser energy than conventional LIFT processes by introducing a specially engineered nanoparticle layer as a laser absorbing and dynamic release layer.” Organic material is delicate, and can be easily damaged by intense heat from lasers. This is what makes the LIFT process, which relies on high temperatures for the proper pressure for transfer, of dubious worth in terms of advancing OLED technology.The nanoparticle layer is what mainly absorbs the laser wavelength. Because of its weak interaction with the organic material, there is less potential for damage. “[N]anomaterials exhibit remarkable properties that may be substantially different from those observed in the bulk counterparts,” Ko says. He also points out that the NELT process uses less energy than the LIFT processes currently considered conventional for direct writing.Among the more interesting applications for the NELT process is the possibility of flexible displays. “Flexible displays are built on flexible substrates so that they can be bent or folded just like a paper. They are futuristic displays usually found in the sci-fi movies.” Ko then continues with additional possible applications for this work: “Other applications include very large area organic light emitting diode display, active material transfer such as semiconducting polymer for organic field effect transfer for organic electronics, and biological material direct transfer for bio-sensor application.”Even with this advance, however, more is required, especially in terms of flexible display. Ko says that a transistor is needed in addition to the light-emitting portion of the display. “Currently we have successfully demonstrated a light emitting diode material direct patterning and transfer by NELT process and several direct writing methods for organic field effect transistor arrays on a polymer substrate. Now we plan to develop a novel approach to integrate organic light emitting diode and organic field effect transistor to demonstrate a working flexible display.”Science fiction may be moving a little closer to becoming science fact.Publication: Nanomaterial enabled laser transfer for organic light emitting material direct writing, Seung H. Ko, Heng Pan, Sang G. Ryu, Nipun Misra, Costas P. Grigoropoulos, and Hee K. Park, Applied Physics Letters online publication 15/10/2008. 2007 All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Researchers image molecules as they change charge states for first time ( — One of the more interesting methods of pattern transfer available for a number of applications right now is Laser Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT). However, when working with organic material, there are some drawbacks to LIFT, as well as other drawbacks to making use of a high threshold UV or IR laser to effect the transfer. “Besides thermal degradation,” Seung Hwan Ko tells, “high laser threshold laser can also induce mechanical cracks on transfer material and problems in edge sharpness.”center_img Citation: Flexible OLED display one-step closer with organic light emitting material direct writing (2008, October 27) retrieved 18 August 2019 from Explore furtherlast_img read more

first_img Copyright 2010 All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of Explore further Toward a better understanding of bilayer graphene Citation: Damaging graphene to create a band gap (2010, November 22) retrieved 18 August 2019 from More information: Ovidiu Cretu, et. al., “Migration and Localization of Metal Atoms on Strained Graphene,” Physical Review Letters (2010). Available online: ( — “Graphene offers a lot of interesting potential applications for nanoelectronics,” Florian Banhart tells, “but there is no band gap. This is a well-known problem. Without the band gap, switching as needed in electronic devices is difficult.” Banhart, a scientist at the University of Strasbourg in Strasbourg, France, believes that there is a solution to this problem. “Everyone tries to solve this problem, trying to create different properties in order to create a band gap. Our solution is doping with metal atoms attached to reconstructed defects in the graphene.”Working with Ovidiu Cretu and Julio Rodríguez-Manzo at the University of Stasbourg, and with Arkady Krasheninnikov at the University of Helsinki, Risto Nieminen at Aalto University in Finland and Litao Sun at Southeast University in Nanjing, China, Banhart developed a method to modify the properties of graphene. The group’s work is published in Physical Review Letters: “Migration and Localization of Metal Atoms on Strained Graphene.”“The idea is to be able to attach something to the surface of the graphene, changing some of the properties to get a band gap,” Banhart explains. By creating reconstructed defects, we can enhance the activity of the graphene and attach metal atoms firmly, possibly producing a band gap.”Banhart and his colleagues created graphene layers that were then damaged. “We used an electron beam to damage the graphene,” Banhart says. “For this paper, we used tungsten atoms to bond to the graphene. The defects we created made it possible for the tungsten atoms to be trapped by the defects, creating stable bonds.”Reconstructed defects increase the activity seen in graphene, making bonding to other atoms possible. “The graphene surface is normally rather inert,” Banhart explains, “but defects such as pentagonal or heptagonal rings enhance its activity. We saw enhanced chemical activity with the graphene.”Even though Banhart and his colleagues hope that this work will lead to the eventual creation of nanoelectronic devices made with graphene, he points out that they were unable to show definitive evidence of band gap creation. “There is no evidence that we did create a band gap,” he admits. “But perhaps tungsten is not ideal. We used it because it is large, and easy to see with the electron microscope when trapped by the graphene.”Banhart says that the tungsten has served its purpose, showing that it is possible to attach metal atoms to graphene with the help of defects on the graphene’s surface. He also points out that their recent work shows that it is possible to use this technique to modify graphene’s properties locally. “We have shown that our method might be used in the future to control graphene’s electronic properties better.”The next step is to try to trap other atoms using defects in graphene. Banhart would also like to do more tests on the electronic properties of graphene doped in this manner. “It would be good to do more tests of graphene,” he says. “With more experiments, we should be able to begin to model the electronic structure of graphene more accurately. Once we better understand the properties of graphene, we should be able to better manipulate them so that we can get a band gap, and so that we can use them in nanoelectronic devices.” This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

first_img Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (—Gene expression plays a central role in the orchestration of virtually all cellular processes. While inducible promoters have proven invaluable in understanding regulatory networks by modifying gene expression levels, their use has faced some shortcomings. Specifically, their utility is constrained to research studying relatively short-term, population-scale effects. Recently, however, scientists at Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et Automatique (INRIA) and at Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), France, have demonstrated that implementing an external feedback loop allows single-cell gene expression to be accurately and tightly controlled over many generations. The team accomplished this by developing a real-time, closed-loop control gene expression platform integrating microscopy, microfluidics, and original software for automated imaging, quantification, and model predictive control. They state that their study demonstrates long-term control with both time-constant and time-varying target expression profiles, at the population and single-cell levels, shows that real-time control can limit the effects of gene expression stochasticity, and anticipate that their method will be useful for improving the performance of complex, synthetically engineered cellular networks. In Brief: Guiding cancer cells to their fate Explore further Citation: Focusing the phenotype: Controlling genetic expression through external feedback (2012, September 3) retrieved 18 August 2019 from Batt describes other innovations that might be developed and applied to the current experimental design. “With our setting, we trigger gene expression by applying osmotic shocks – that is, by changing the normal cell environment by a salt-rich or sugar-rich environment, and by highjacking the normal cell hyperosmotic response so that cells produce fluorescent proteins when shocked. Therefore, by design, all cells feel the same stimulation. Recently-developed novel optogenetic techniques allow individual stimulation of cells in a population: cellular processes can be activated or inactivated simply by exposing a cell to light. “The use of optogenetic techniques within our control platform should expand our control capabilities: each cell within a population could be controlled individually to fulfill the population objective.”To probe the functioning of dynamical systems, scientists generally observe how the system reacts following some perturbations – an approach that’s standard for studying the functioning of cellular processes. “However, current methods for perturbing protein levels – most notably the use of inducible promoters and RNA interference – are fairly limited in terms of duration and quantitative accuracy,” Batt points out. “Moreover, it is not possible to obtain well-controlled time-varying profiles of protein concentrations. Our platform for real-time control of gene expression has been developed precisely to address these limitations. “Synthetic biology aims at reprogramming cells so that they implement useful functions, and currently its typical target applications include biofuel production, bioremediation and even cellular therapies. In practice, bioengineers take advantage of the metabolic and information processing capabilities of cells to reengineer cells towards a desired objective. “However,” Batt comments, “it’s often nontrivial to implement robustly all functions using exclusively biological building blocks. By offering the possibility to use an external control loop, our project offers the possibility to develop mixed systems in which some elements are implemented in vivo using synthetic biology principles and some elements are implemented in silico using standard programming principles.”An important result of the research is that the findings provide evidence that real-time control can dynamically limit the effects of gene expression stochasticity. “We performed two types of experiments,” Batt notes, “In the first, we measured the fluorescence of all the cells in the microscope field of view, and used the mean cell fluorescence as a control criterion. In the second case, we only focus on one cell, randomly chosen at the beginning of the experiment, and defined the fluorescence of this cell as the control criterion. Then, we observed that the fluctuations around the target value of the fluorescence of a cell were statistically smaller when cells were individually controlled than when they were controlled as a member of a population.”In addition to systems and synthetic biology applications, Batt concludes, “Our platform can also be of interest to computational biologists, since it paves the way for online model selection and online model tuning.” In this setting, experiments are carried out, analyzed and interpreted in real-time, so that models can be challenged in the most efficient manner. Research Scientist Gregory Batt describes the challenges the research team faced in this study in designing an external feedback loop and platform to tightly control gene expression over many cell generations. “Because gene expression is a relatively slow process,” Batt tells, “we had to do long-term experiments – each lasting 15 hours – to demonstrate the effective control of gene expression. Each experiment corresponded to many yeast cell generations, and every part of the platform had to be adapted accordingly.”For example, Batt continues, with the first microfluidic device they used, cells were directly under the flow of nutrient media. This allowed them to change the cells’ environment very rapidly, but when the cells divided, they were detaching from the bottom glass slide where they were “glued” and were then washed away. “We therefore had to adapt our device by making a type of trap where cells were protected from the main media flow.”In terms of original software for automated imaging, quantification, and model predictive control, Batt adds, the quantification of the protein concentration via the cell fluorescence measurements required particular attention. “Robustness was the issue here. Because we did real-time control, control decisions were made online. Therefore, all the steps of image analysis had to be done in a completely automated manner.” They therefore made a significant effort in developing robust routines for autofocus (to maintain good image quality over time), image segmentation (to detect the contours of all cells in the image), and cell tracking (to follow individual cells over time and detect newborn cells). “In particular,” notes Batt, “the imaging frequency had to be carefully chosen. Too many images are noxious for cells due to phototoxicity and photobleaching. On the other hand, too few images degrade the performance of autofocus and cell tracking.”In addressing these challenges, says Batt, “our key intuition was probably that automated control techniques and modeling will be effective enough to obtain quantitatively good performance despite the technological issues mentioned above – and even more importantly, despite the significant inertia and stochasticity of gene expression processes. Indeed, there is a significant lag between the initiation of the transcription on the chromosome and the effective increase of cell fluorescence. Transcription, translation, and protein folding take time.” More information: Long-term model predictive control of gene expression at the population and single-cell levels, PNAS August 28, 2012 vol. 109 no. 35 14271-14276, doi:10.1073/pnas.1206810109 Copyright 2012 All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. A platform for real-time control of gene expression in yeast. (A) A hyperosmotic stress triggers the activation and nuclear translocation of Hog1. Short-term adaptation is mainly implemented by cytoplasmic activation of the glycerol-producing enzyme Gpd1 and closure of the aqua-glyceroporin channel Fps1. Long-term adaptation occurs primarily through the production of Gpd1. (B) When maintained in a hyperosmotic environment (1 M sorbitol), the HOG cascade was quickly activated, which is seen by Hog1 nuclear enrichment. This transient signaling response lasted typically <20 min. (C) In contrast, the fluorescence level showed a continuous increase when stimulated periodically (T = 30 min). The increase rate was larger for longer pulses (red, 8 min; yellow, 5 min). (D) Yeast cells grew as a monolayer in a microfluidic device that was used to rapidly change the cells’ osmotic environment (blue frame) and image their response. Segmentation and cell tracking were done using a Hough transform (orange frame). (E) At the present time point (orange circle), the system state is estimated (green), and the Model Predictive Control (MPC) searches for the best input (pulse duration and number of pulses). Here, the osmotic series of pulses that corresponds to the blue curve (4) was selected and sent to the microfluidic command. This control loop is iterated every 6 min. Copyright © PNAS, doi:10.1073/pnas.1206810109 Therefore, Batt explains, the influences of recent past events are not apparent and must be taken into account via modeling. "Unfortunately, modeling is not trivial since gene expression is also a stochastic process. Confronted with the same stimulation, two cells do not respond identically. Even more problematic is the fact that the same cell confronted twice with the same stimulation does not respond twice the same." Therefore, notes Batt, the main open question at the beginning of the project was whether good performances could be obtained via model predictive control despite the significant inertia and stochasticity of gene expression processes. The microfluidic device. (A) Schematic representation of the microfluidic device. A flow is created in the channels thanks to a peristaltic pump placed downstream. Upstream, a valve allows switching between the two media. (B) Using ink, we measured the dynamics of fluid exchange. This switching profile was obtained in a robust manner. (C) Close up of the microfluidic device. (D) Cells are captured within thin chambers. The media in the imaging chamber are exchanged by diffusion. (E) An example of cell imaging, segmentation, and tracking is shown. Copyright © PNAS, doi:10.1073/pnas.1206810109last_img read more

first_img Explore further © 2013 ‘Apocalyptic’ smog eases in Chinese city Citation: Chinese to test electrostatic smog cleaning concept in a park (2013, October 23) retrieved 18 August 2019 from This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. ( —Dutch designer Daan Roosegaarde has announced at Dutch Design Week, that he’s forged an agreement with Chinese officials to test a system he’s designed to clear smog from a small portion of the sky. Roosegaarde, with Studio Roosgaarde, is known for coming up with innovative design ideas that are good for both people and the environment. His latest idea involves embedding copper coils in the ground and running high voltage, low amp electricity through them to create an electrostatic charge strong enough to pull down smog particles in the air. Roosegaarde reported that he and his team have already built a running mock-up of the system at an indoor facility. There they are using the coils in a 5 x 5 meter smog filled room to create a 1 cubic meter round hole in the center that is free of smog. He likens the technology to the static electricity that occurs when people rub a balloon on their heads. With his system, the electrostatic charge would attract soot and other particles in the air in the immediate vicinity, making the air much easier to breathe.China, as most have heard, has been experiencing serious smog problems as coal fired electricity producing power plants release massive amounts of particles that sometimes cover cities in a haze that is both difficult to see through, and hazardous to health. The situation has at times become dire, Roosegaarde told those at the meeting, forcing officials to admit, albeit off the record, that something needs to be done in the short term, while long term plans are in the making. He disclosed that officials have granted him permission to install one of his systems in a public park in Beijing. It won’t happen right away of course, Roosegaarde and his team have to test a bigger system to work out the true design, and to make sure it will work outdoors. He insists the system will be safe, even for people walking directly over the coils.The coil system by Roosegaarde, even if it works exactly as planned won’t be the solution to the extreme smog problems in China, of course, but it might offer those in the area at least a temporary respite. If successful, it’s likely many such systems would be installed— Roosegaarde claims that the size of the hole in the smog is limited only by the amount of power sent through the coils.last_img read more

first_imgIn the new study, the researchers from Peking University demonstrated that it’s possible to efficiently build complex ICs on multiple CNTs, even though the CNTs have different properties. They did this using a modular approach, with the basic module being an eight-transistor (8-T) unit built on two CNTs with different electronic properties. The 8-T unit shows excellent tolerance to the property difference between the CNTs and can be used as a building block to fabricate the 8-bits BUS system, which contains 46 FETs on six CNTs. Tests showed that the 8-bits BUS system maintains a strong signal even as it passes through seven cascading logic gates. Explore further Journal information: Nano Letters SEM image of a BUS circuit based on five semiconducting CNTs selected through electrical measurements. The scale bar is 50 µm. Credit: Pei, et al. ©2014 American Chemical Society Citation: Forty-six transistors constructed on six CNTs is most complicated device of its kind to date (2014, May 22) retrieved 18 August 2019 from SEM image of an eight-transistor (8-T) unit that was fabricated on two CNTs (marked with two white dotted lines). The scale bar is 100 µm. Credit: Pei, et al. ©2014 American Chemical Society ( —As silicon-based electronics are predicted to reach their absolute limits on performance around 2020, new technologies have been proposed to continue the trend in the miniaturization of electronic devices. One of these approaches consists of constructing field-effect transistors (FETs) directly on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The resulting devices are on the scale of mere nanometers, although their fabrication is still a challenge. As the researchers explain, the method is particularly valuable now because it allows for exploration of the performance limits of CNT ICs while the material problems are still being solved.”This work has laid down a general way to construct complicated integrated circuits using currently non-perfect carbon nanotube materials, which (unlike silicon) are one-dimensional and different from each other,” Lian-Mao Peng, Professor at Peking University and coauthor of the new paper, told 8-T unit can be used as the basic building block of a variety of ICs other than BUS systems, making this modular method a universal and efficient way to construct large-scale CNT ICs. Building on their previous research, the scientists hope to explore these possibilities in the future.”In our earlier work, we showed that a carbon nanotube based field-effect transistor is about five (n-type FET) to ten (p-type FET) times faster than its silicon counterparts, but uses much less energy, about a few percent of that of similar sized silicon transistors,” Peng said. “In the future, we plan to construct large-scale integrated circuits that outperform silicon-based systems. These circuits are faster, smaller, and consume much less power. They can also work at extremely low temperatures (e.g., in space) and moderately high temperatures (potentially no cooling system required), on flexible and transparent substrates, and potentially be bio-compatible.” New ‘doping’ method improves properties of carbon nanotubes Now in a new paper published in Nano Letters, researchers Tian Pei, et al., at Peking University in Beijing, China, have developed a modular method for constructing complicated integrated circuits (ICs) made from many FETs on individual CNTs. To demonstrate, they constructed an 8-bits BUS system—a circuit that is widely used for transferring data in computers—that contains 46 FETs on six CNTs. This is the most complicated CNT IC fabricated to date, and the fabrication process is expected to lead to even more complex circuits.Ever since the first CNT FET was fabricated in 1998, researchers have been working to improve CNT-based electronics. As the scientists explain in their paper, semiconducting CNTs are promising candidates for replacing silicon wires because they are thinner, which offers better scaling-down potential, and also because they have a higher carrier mobility, resulting in higher operating speeds. Yet CNT-based electronics still face challenges. One of the most significant challenges is obtaining arrays of semiconducting CNTs while removing the less-suitable metallic CNTs. Although scientists have devised a variety of ways to separate semiconducting and metallic CNTs, these methods almost always result in damaged semiconducting CNTs with degraded performance. To get around this problem, researchers usually build ICs on single CNTs, which can be individually selected based on their condition. It’s difficult to use more than one CNT because no two are alike: they each have slightly different diameters and properties that affect performance. However, using just one CNT limits the complexity of these devices to simple logic and arithmetical gates. More information: Tian Pei, et al. “Modularized Construction of General Integrated Circuits on Individual Carbon Nanotubes.” Nano Letters. DOI: 10.1021/nl5001604 © 2014 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

first_img Remotely operated vehicle finds heterotrophs abundant in deepest part of the ocean This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Credit: Oliver Plümper, Utrecht University Explore further Citation: Possible signs of life found ten kilometers below seafloor (2017, April 11) retrieved 18 August 2019 from The Mariana Trench is the deepest part of any of the world’s oceans. Its lowest point is 10,994 meters below sea level. It is located southwest of Japan, and has been an area of scrutiny ever since the development of underwater pilotless craft called Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs). Prior research has shown that the trench formed due to the Pacific tectonic plate sliding beneath the Philippines plate, making it a subduction zone. In this new effort, the researchers used an ROV to extract 46 samples of serpentine from the ocean floor near the South Chamorro mud volcano, which they brought back to their lab for study.Serpentine is a mineral that forms when olivine in the upper mantle meets water pushed up from a subduction zone. Such reactions produce methane gas and hydrogen, which the researchers note could be used as a food source by microbes. Serpentine is pushed to the surface of the sea floor by hydrothermal vents, where the researchers found it.Upon examination of their serpentine samples, the researchers found trace amounts of organic material that was very similar to that produced by microbes living in more accessible places. That suggests, the team notes, it is possible that the serpentine samples are evidence of life living far below the surface. The team used data from prior studies to calculate how far below the sea floor the serpentine was formed, which allowed them estimate just how far down the possible microbes might live—approximately ten kilometers below the sea floor.The team acknowledges that their findings are not proof of life below the sea floor; other processes have been known to produce both serpentine and the organic matter, but, they note, it does suggest it is possible.center_img More information: Oliver Plümper et al. Subduction zone forearc serpentinites as incubators for deep microbial life, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2017). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1612147114AbstractSerpentinization-fueled systems in the cool, hydrated forearc mantle of subduction zones may provide an environment that supports deep chemolithoautotrophic life. Here, we examine serpentinite clasts expelled from mud volcanoes above the Izu–Bonin–Mariana subduction zone forearc (Pacific Ocean) that contain complex organic matter and nanosized Ni–Fe alloys. Using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy, we determined that the organic matter consists of a mixture of aliphatic and aromatic compounds and functional groups such as amides. Although an abiotic or subduction slab-derived fluid origin cannot be excluded, the similarities between the molecular signatures identified in the clasts and those of bacteria-derived biopolymers from other serpentinizing systems hint at the possibility of deep microbial life within the forearc. To test this hypothesis, we coupled the currently known temperature limit for life, 122 °C, with a heat conduction model that predicts a potential depth limit for life within the forearc at ∼10,000 m below the seafloor. This is deeper than the 122 °C isotherm in known oceanic serpentinizing regions and an order of magnitude deeper than the downhole temperature at the serpentinized Atlantis Massif oceanic core complex, Mid-Atlantic Ridge. We suggest that the organic-rich serpentinites may be indicators for microbial life deep within or below the mud volcano. Thus, the hydrated forearc mantle may represent one of Earth’s largest hidden microbial ecosystems. These types of protected ecosystems may have allowed the deep biosphere to thrive, despite violent phases during Earth’s history such as the late heavy bombardment and global mass extinctions. Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (—An international team of researchers has found possible evidence of life ten kilometers below the sea floor in the Mariana Trench. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the team describes samples of serpentine they collected from hydrothermal vents and the material they found in it that offers evidence of life living farther below the surface than was thought. © 2017 Phys.orglast_img read more

first_imgAmish Tripathi talks to Poulomi Banerjee about the Oath of the Vayuputras and life beyond the Shiva trilogyhology…After Immortals of Meluha was released, you had said, that you had the other two parts too planned in your mind… writing the second (The Secret of the Nagas) and the third (The Oath of the Vayuputras) books must have been easy then.As far as I am concerned, the Shiva trilogy is one continuous story and not three separate books. But it is difficult to bring out such a long story as one book, and hence the format of the trilogy. Even before the release of the 1st book, I had the complete story in mind, right down to the last line. But when you are in the actual process of writing, characters and sub-plots get introduced and the challenge then is to blend them with the main storyline. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Also, since the Oath of the Vayuputras was the final book of the trilogy, I had tie up all the loose ends. But the fact, that the story is one uninterrupted thought would be evident to anyone who has carefully read the book. In each of the books, I have left clues about what was going to happen in the next one.As a writer, what was the most difficult decision that you had to take in the Oath of the Vayuputras?Some characters had to die, and to kill them was the most difficult task I had to perform. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixYou have said that you were an atheist and the Shiva Trilogy was for you a blessing that changed you as a person. Having spent so much time telling this story, are you in anyway sad that the book is done with the release of the Oath of the Vayuputras?The book is done, but my relationship with Lord Shiva continues. I have become a believer for life. So there is no sadness at all. There is a sense of completeness.The last line of the Oath of the Vayuputras mentions the Mahabharata and says that story too will be told some days… Is that a hint to your readers? Is your next book going to be on Mahabharata?No. I have many ideas for my next book series, but I am yet to finalise the one I will take up. The Mahabharata, is one of the ideas under consideration. All the ideas that I am toying with are again based on history and mythology for that is my area of passion.The Immortals of Meluha is being made in to a film. Tell us about the progress on that front.Well, as you know, Karan Johar has acquired the film rights for the book and his team is working on the script. Once the script is ready, they will start work on the cast and other details.And you have not involved yourself with the script?No, it was a conscious decision on my part to not get involved in the script-writing, since I have felt that I can’t do justice to it and write my book at the same time, and I had to complete the Oath of the Vayuputras.With the Shiva Trilogy you have created not just a successful story, but also a successful marketing model. What was the vision that you had when you started marketing the book and why did you often choose smaller bookshops for launches and events rather than bigger bookstore chains?I’ve always believed that it is a fallacy to assume that a good book sells itself. That’s not true. A bad book and good marketing doesn’t work. But then, a good book and bad marketing does not work either.Both the book and the marketing need to be good. My team and I have implemented a lot of innovative ideas to promote my books and I’m glad that they have been well received.In book, you have often included modern issues such as widow remarriage, caner… then what would you say is evil, a subject that you dwell upon in detail in the Shiva trilogy, in today’s socio-political scenario?I’d love to answer this question, but then I may end up giving away the philosophy that is to be explained in the 3rd book. That may spoil the book for those who haven’t read the 3rd book. Perhaps I’ll answer this question six months later.last_img read more

first_imgThe sixth series of  Feminism Beyond Boundaries was organised in the Capital on 28 July featuring a discussion titled Hum Gunehgaar Auratein: We Sinful Women by Oxford Bookstore Connaught Place and Apne Aap Women Worldwide. The event also marked feminist reading from Urdu poetry by Saif Mahmood. Mahmood, holding a doctorate degree, speaks and writes on diverse issues ranging from law to literature. He has been associated with both Hindustani Awaaz and Sahmat and is currently writing a series on Urdu poets of Delhi titled Dilli Jo Ek Sheher Tha. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Oxford Bookstore Connaught Place offers a carefully curated list of titles for booklovers to browse through and buy and of teas in the hip Cha Bar, to create a holistic experience for book lovers. A wide range of knowledgeable and highly trained book specialists, offer suggestions of handpicked titles from major, independent and indie publishers. Also it incorporates a great selection of books exclusive to Oxford Bookstore.The selection features both emerging and established authors from India and the world. Amongst the best in books for different age groups are ones that help the young ones deal with experiences relevant to their age.last_img read more

first_imgKolkata: Kolkata Port Trust, for the first time in its history, is embarking on a mission to highlight its rich heritage in the best possible way. Come Sunday and KoPT will take you on a heritage tour on board its vessel to explore various places in and around river Ganga, most of which have been shielded from public view.”Kolkata Port is intrinsic with the history of Kolkata and we feel that remembering Kolkata’s glorious past cannot be without having knowledge about the port that was officially born 147 years ago. We have set up a museum at the Fairley Warehouse, an early 20th century peer of the Strand Warehouse that was lost in a fire on February 14, 2010, which will throw light at various landmark memories associated with the port. Our heritage tour will begin right from there,” KoPT chairman Vinit Kumar said. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsElaborating on the tour, Kumar said that the three and half hour journey will start from the museum and then visitors will be taken to Princep Ghat, from where they will board a vessel. “We will be taking them on a guided tour of various jetties and constructions on the bank of river Hooghly. The tour will end at the Indenture Memorial,” Kumar said.The Indenture Memorial has been set up at the Suriname Jetty. It was from this place that the indentured workers from India set sail in ships to the small country located on the north-east Atlantic coast of South America from 1873 to 1910. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedGifted by the Surinamese Government, the memorial is a bust of ‘Baba and Mai’ – a depiction of male and female indentured workers known as father and mother – and a replica of a monument in Suriname capital Parimaribo. It symbolises the first Indian man and woman to set foot in the Dutch-speaking nation.”How many of us know the jetty where Sister Nivedita had landed or that Uttam Kumar was an employee of KoPT, or have witnessed a piece of important history of the city overlooked by a tower peaked by a Cooke and Kelvey turret clock dating back to 1899? All these will be part of the tour,” Kumar added.The tour will be conducted weekly. The rate per person will be Rs 1,399, while that for foreigners will be Rs 2,499 each, including refreshments.last_img read more

first_imgKolkata: In a tweet on the occasion of Earth Day, Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee has urged people to put an end to plastic pollution to ensure a clean environment.”On the occasion of Earth Day, let us pledge to keep our environment clean. We can take a step in this direction by putting an end to plastic pollution,” Banerjee tweeted on Sunday morning.Earth Day 2018 is dedicated to providing the information and inspiration needed to change human attitude and behaviour about plastics fundamentally. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsOne of the bleakest stories of the year so far was the report of a six-ton sperm whale washing up on the shores of southern Spain with 64 pounds of plastic in its stomach, a disturbing sign of the alarming rate at which we’re dumping plastics into the ocean.The plastic crisis is a truly global one, and the numbers are staggering: A 2015 study found that between 4.8 and 12.7 million metric tons of plastic make it into the ocean from land each year. By 2050, there will be more plastic than fish in the ocean by weight.Since plastic is synthetic, few natural processes break it down, allowing bags, straws, and packaging to linger for decades if not centuries. And we’re not very good at containing it to landfills. About 32 percent of plastics make out into nature, where it often ends up in the bellies of fish, birds, and whales. And, as it turns out, potentially in our stomachs too.last_img read more

first_imgThein Sein, a former general who has run Myanmar since 2011 when the junta ceded power to a quasi-civilian government after decades of brutal rule, insisted his country was on the path towards genuine democracy.“Our reform process is going step by step. There is no backsliding. We are now on the track towards democracy, but going at a steady pace,” he said in a BBC interview broadcast today. He also said the army needed to be “involved in national politics” and refused to commit himself to any specific timetable on when that political role might be reduced. Also Read – Pro-Govt supporters rally as Hong Kong’s divisions deepenUnder the country’s constitution, the armed forces still retain a quarter of the seats in parliament and some key cabinet posts, giving the country’s generals an effective veto on policy.“It would be rather difficult to give a timeframe for reducing this role,” Thein Sein said.“But I can assure you that as we mature in democracy in our country the role of the military in parliament will reduce gradually,” he added.His comments come ahead of crucial polls slated for November, which are being closely watched as a litmus test for whether the nation’s leaders have truly turned their backs their authoritarian past. Also Read – Pak Army ‘fully prepared’ to face any challenge: Army spokesmanThe opposition National League for Democracy (NLD), led by veteran democracy campaigner Aung San Su Kyi, has called on the military to reduce their powerful hold over Myanmar’s politics.Early in his tenure Thein Sein oversaw major reforms that have lured foreign investment back into the isolated nation. But some observers fear his initial enthusiasm has stalled.The NLD is expected to win this years elections if polls are free and fair.But Suu Kyi cannot stand for the presidency because a clause in the constitution bans those with a foreign spouse or children. Her two sons are British, as was her late husband.last_img read more

first_imgIn an interview, the 26-year-old flight attendant known as Maria W told Bild that when she heard about the crash she recalled Andreas Lubitz telling her last year: “One day I’m going to do something that will change the whole system, and everyone will know my name and remember.”The black box voice recorder indicates that Lubitz, 27, locked his captain out of the cockpit on Tuesday and deliberately flew Flight 4U 9525 into a mountainside, French officials say, in what appears to have been a case of suicide and mass killing. French Prime Minister Manuel Valls said that all the signs were “pointing towards an act that we can’t describe: criminal, crazy, suicidal”. German prosecutors revealed that searches of Lubitz’s homes netted “medical documents that suggest an existing illness and appropriate medical treatment,” including “torn-up and current sick leave notes, among them one covering the day of the crash”. They did not specify the illness. According to Bild, the young woman, who was “very shocked”, flew with Lubitz on European flights for five months last year, during which time they are believed to have been romantically involved. If Lubitz did deliberately crash the plane, “it is because he understood that because of his health problems, his big dream of a job at Lufthansa, as captain and as a long-haul pilot was practically impossible,” she told Bild. The pair separated “because it became increasingly clear that he had a problem”, she told the daily, adding that at night he would wake up and scream “we’re going down” and was plagued by nightmares.Bild earlier reported that Lubitz sought psychiatric help for “a bout of serious depression” in 2009 and was still getting assistance from doctors, quoting documents from Germany’s air transport regulator.last_img read more

first_imgKolkata: Giving stress on improving infrastructure to ensure safety and security of passengers availing water transport, two major jetties including one in Telenipara in Hooghly was opened for operation on Thursday.Suvendu Adhikari, the state Transport minister and Indranil Sen, Minister of State for Tourism inaugurated the two major jetties. Around 11 state-of-the-art water crafts were also introduced.During the inauguration, Adhikari said a lot of emphasis has been given to promote the water transport system and at the same time to ensure safety and security of passengers. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsThe state Transport department has taken up the task of developing the infrastructure of 350 jetties following the Standard Operational Procedure (SOP) and at the same time another 750 will also be developed across the state.It may be recalled that some people died last year after a temporary jetty at Telenipara collapsed. Now, the biggest jetty in the state has been developed in Telenipara. Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee had given directions to take necessary measures to check such incidents. The state Transport department had immediately taken up the issue and introduced the SOP in jetties and the security and safety of passengers were given primary importance. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedAdhikari also emphasised the measures that would be taken to use the water transport for tourism purpose as there are many places of interest along the banks of River Hooghly.Appreciating the steps taken up by the state Transport department, Indranil Sen said such initiatives will ensure further development of the inland water transportation.The water vessels which were introduced were named by Chief Minister and the one with carrying capacity of 400 passengers, MV Shikkhashree, will operate from Howrah while each of the 10 others have a carrying capacity of 100 people at a time.The 10 vessels will be operating between Belur-Kuthighat, Garulia-Bhadreshwar, Telenipara-Shyamnagar, Bichali Ghat-Howrah, Boga-Rasulpure, Aridaha-Uttarpara, Chandpal-Shibpur, Uluberia-Achipur and Diamond Harbour-Kukra Hati.last_img read more

first_imgNigerian troops rescued 178 people from Boko Haram in attacks that destroyed several camps of the Islamic extremists in the northeast of the country, an army statement has said.Spokesman Col Tukur Gusau yesterday said that 101 of those freed are children, along with 67 women and 10 men.The Nigerian Air Force reported killing “a large number” of militants in repelling an attack on Bitta village, 50 kilometres southwest of the army operations that took place around Bama, 70 kilometres southeast of Maiduguri city. Also Read – Russian opposition to defy authorities with fresh protestsMaiduguri is the birthplace of Boko Haram and the capital of northeastern Borno state.The statements did not specify when the attacks occurred. Last week the army rescued 71 kidnapped people.Hundreds have been freed from Boko Haram captivity this year but none of the 219 girls abducted in April 2014 from a school in Chibok were among the rescued. Also Read – 300 tourists isolated due to mudslides in AlaskaThe extremists distributed a new video on Twitter yesterday purporting to show attacks on Nigerian army barracks in the states of Borno and Yobe. The video also shows the beheading of a man in military fatigues said to be a Nigerian soldier.According to a translation by the SITE Intelligence Group, an unidentified fighter, shown in the video with looted army weapons and ammunition, says the footage shows Nigeria’s military has not forced Boko Haram from its positions and got them hemmed into the Sambisa Forest, as the military has claimed.Some of those rescued last week said they had been held by Boko Haram for up to one year in villages just 40 kilometers from Maiduguri.last_img read more

first_imgOne of the world’s top three music festivals, Sunburn Goa returns this year as a prelude to its 10th anniversary in association with Goa Tourism. It will begin from December 27 at Vagator Beach, Goa.Spearheading the performance on the first day of the festival is David Guetta, who is ready to surprise the audience once he steps on the stage. He revealed to Millennium Post that he is planning to go against the established EDM format and create new formulas by combining different genres of music.  Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’He is busy experimenting and is currently attempting to combine urban rhythms with electronic music. Here’s an easy one. What are the five things you cannot live without? Five is tad too long! Let’s make it just two, my laptop and my manager.How excited are you, now that you are playing in this country for the third time? Well India always holds a very special place in my heart. It’s always thrilling to see your fans all over again and surprise them with some classics. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixWhat do you plan to do in Goa other than your performance in ‘Sunburn’? I’ll just be flying in, taking a nap at the hotel and heading straight to my gig. In case I do catch up on sleep on the flight, I may go look around a little. This is my third visit to Goa!What are the tracks you will be playing at ‘Sunburn’? How different will they be from the previous performances? Let’s say it’s all a surprise, but it’s Guetta Reloaded! I feel I have a responsibility towards my fans and I feel the urge to surprise them each time I come up on the stage. It’s more motivating. You have been selected to create the anthem of UEFA Euro 2016 tournament and recently, there was a buzz that you want football aficionados and their music to be in the core of the track… How far have you progressed? I’m so excited to be working towards uniting fans in Europe. UEFA EURO 2016 is all about the fans and I want to put them at the heart of everything, especially the song. Music, like sport brings people together, so I’m trying something very special and asking people around the world to unite and add their voices to this anthem.You have collaborated with so many artists across the world, who is the next artist you’ll be working with? I started a record with Hozier, and I would really love to get back in the studio with him. His record was the most amazing one of 2014. It was so full of emotion, and my thing is to combine emotion with the energy of dance music. That was always my winning ticket, if I could say, my trick to have dark, emotional elements and also happy, energetic elements together.Where do you see yourself ten years from now? DJing on the moon maybe! On a serious note, I’d love to get new producers discovered and introduce a brand new sound. DJing is a different job now. When we do a show, it’s a concert, and we’re selling ourselves as artists and not DJs. Now I’m trying to look for a way to go against the established format again because I think the essence of dance music is to go against formats.I think the challenge of the upcoming year for dance music is to go against our own format. It’s like we came such a long way to get there and be respected as much as hip-hop and rock, but now what are we going to do with it? I’m trying to combine urban rhythms with electronic music.EDM was super-exciting because it was so new and different. And now I feel the need to change the formula again, you know? I am making a lot of new music at the moment. It’s an exciting time for me again. The success of Hey Mama is great because it makes me want to create more records like this.last_img read more

first_imgKolkata: Fire broke out at the workshop of a leading sweet maker located in the top floor of a building at Abhay Sarkar Lane, adjacent to Jadu Babur Bazaar in Bhowanipore on Monday afternoon.Two fire tenders were pressed into service, who managed to bring the fire under control in less than half an hour. No one was injured in the incident. However, there was panic among the residents of the building as a thick column of smoke engulfed the area. The police received a call and immediately informed the fire brigade and the local police station. “The cause of the fire is yet to be ascertained. A probe will be conducted to find out whether there was fire safety measures in place. According to locals, the workshop was illegal as cooking was done there and many gas cylinders were stored inside. “We had complained to the local police but no steps were taken,” a local resident said. Local councillor Ashim Basu will hold a meeting with the residents of the building and will urge the police to take strong action against the sweet workshop that had several inflammable materials stored inside. Another fire was reported from a meter box at a building on Ramesh Mitra Road in Bhowanipore on Sunday night. A fire tender brought the situation under control within half an hour.last_img read more

first_imgKolkata: Samir Mullick (60), a resident of Nabapally area of Barasat in North 24-Parganas was allegedly killed by his son Sanjib.He has been arrested by the district police. The incident triggered tension in the locality. According to the preliminary investigation, police suspect a quarrel that broke out over some property related issues might have led to the murder. Police came to know that the accused had fought with his father on a number of occasions in the recent past. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeThe accused was pressurizing his father to name him his entire property. But the victim did not bow to his pressure. On Saturday evening, the accused entered the house in a drunken state and threatened his father of dire consequences if he did not hand over the property. As the victim refused to do so, the accused pounced on his father with a knife and stabbed him indiscriminately. After hearing the screams of the elderly man, locals reached his house. They took him to the Barasat district hospital where he succumbed to his injuries on late Sunday night. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedThe victim was suffering from various age-related ailments. The locals told police that the accused used to torture his father for his property. After being informed police reached the spot and arrested the accused. It was learnt from the sources that the accused son had admitted his guilt in the face of police interrogation. The investigating officers have started a probe. They are yet to ascertain if the accused had killed his father following some property related dispute.last_img read more

first_imgKolkata: The 48-hour bandh had no impact on the transport system in Kolkata and its adjacent areas. In some places, the bandh supporters tried to obstruct Metro, Rail and bus services by means of vandalism and creating panic which had minor effect on the transport services.On Tuesday at around 3 pm, a few bandh supporters belonging to the Congress party entered the Maidan Metro station posing as passengers. After reaching the platform, some of them boarded the motor man’s cabin of a Dum Dum-bound Metro. Immediately, the RPF intervened and dispersed them. Also, agitators ransacked a bus in Harinavi and tried to set one on fire at Sovabazar. But daily commuters had no problem as the Transport department had arranged for 500 more buses to ply across the city. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeThe train services were also affected slightly on Tuesday. Around 5:10 am, bandh supporters threw banana leaves on the overhead electric wire between Sodepur and Agarpara stations. Also, a blockade was put up at Kalyani-Kanchrapara section. In the Barasat-Bongaon section, train movements were obstructed at Machlandapur since 5:45 am. Bandh supporters obstructed the train services in Hotor-Magrahat-Diamond Harbour section since 9:10 am. Another blockade was put up in the Bongaon section at around 9:30 am. In the Howrah division of the ER, obstructions were made by bandh supporters at Bainchi, Mankundu and Magra on the Howrah Bardhaman main line section. Later RPF personnel dispersed the mob and normal movement started within an hour. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killed The train service in SER was partially affected ranging from 30 minutes to 2 hours on Tuesday morning due to blockade put up by bandh supporters. Agitations were staged at Belda, Dantan, Jaleswar, Rupsa, Balasore, Uluberia, Midnapore, Chengail stations. As a result, 4 mail/express trains, 2 passenger trains and 4 EMU locals in Up direction were detained and controlled at various stations. Similarly, 4 mail/express trains, 2 passenger trains and 3 EMU locals in the Down direction were detained and controlled also. Apart from that, 6 Up and 6 Down EMU locals and 1 passenger train were cancelled.last_img read more

first_imgKolkata: She is not only a mother, but a gritty woman who pulled out all stops to become the countrys first female unrelated bone marrow donor to give new lease of life to an ailing three-month-old infant, doctors claimed. It took a lot of courage for the 26-year-old Masilamani, hailing from a nondescript village of Coimbatore in Tamil Nadu, to come out and donate her bone marrow to save a baby from New Delhi. Masilamani, the mother of a thalassemia major girl, was in the city on a personal visit. Also Read – Bose & Gandhi: More similar than apart, says Sugata Bose She is ecstatic at what she has achieved recently. “I believe Im blessed. I managed to break away from the misconceptions of our society to save a child. I feel like I am the mother of the child. I would say it is my child too as now I have given him a second chance to live. I pray to the almighty that he must recover fast and should never suffer again. He must be healthy,” Masilamani told PTI. Talking about her fight against social myths when she decided to go ahead with the bone marrow donation, Masilamani recalls, “My village is a very remote one at the foot of the Velliangiri hills with very less exposure to any modern amenities. There are very few educated people there. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: Mamata Therefore, anything new, be it a thing or a thought, is always resisted in the village.” Hailing from Mudhalipalayam, a hamlet in Coimbatore, Masilamani got married at the age of 20 to R Kaviarasan, a fabricator. “Within a year, my daughter was born and a few months later she was diagnosed with thalassemia major. We both (husband and wife) have our swabs to identify human leukocyte antigen (HLA) to check if we could be of any match to our daughter at DATRI – the blood stem cells donor registry. There I found a match to become a donor for a baby boy.” Excited but confused, Masilamani shared the piece of information with her husband who agreed that it was a great opportunity to help another parent in distress. But we could not take a decision so easily. My mother-in-law and sister-in-law resisted saying if something went wrong, who will take care of your children? “The in-laws were all the more worried as I have a daughter with a chronic illness. Even my relatives and neighbours advised me not to go ahead with the donation as there could be side effects in the future, if not immediately. I was confused,” Masilamani said. Masilamani, who gave birth to a boy three years later, sought expert advice on bone marrow donation. “My doubts were cleared and I was glad to know there are no short-term and long-term side effects. I could finally convince my family and take a decision to donate bone marrow to save a life,”she says. Masilamani thanked her husband profusely for supporting her when it mattered most. “There are men who would leave their partners if the child is found to be having any such fatal disorder. But Kaviarasan has been a responsible father and a great partner,” she said. Describing bone marrow donation as a simple process without side effects, Masilamani hopes that her act would encourage other women to come forward. “I understand that women have more compulsions to back out from donations than men. But I am an example that nothing is big enough to stop us from gifting a life. After undergoing the procedure, I can vouch that it is very simple and has no side effects. Many people discouraged me saying you may not walk properly, you may get bedridden, marrow will be taken from spine etc,” she pointed out. Asked if she was willing to donate again, Masilamani said she would be more than happy to do it. “They say the greatest gift is the gift of life and it is a golden opportunity to gift it if you are found to be a match. I will definitely donate”. As of now, India has a total of 1,36,244 female donors, which is about 34 per cent of the total registered donors, official data say. The total number of women who backed out from donations in the last two years (January 2017 to February 2019) were 129, according to DATRI data. “I feel privileged to have Masilamani as Indias first lady bone marrow donor from DATRI. It makes me proud to say that while women are excelling in every field, there are a few who are doing extraordinary and phenomenal contributions to the human kind such as donating their blood stem cells to save lives. In the true sense, it is like giving birth, but not biologically,” DATRI founder and CEO Raghu Rajagopal said. DATRI is engaged in finding willing matched donors for patients suffering from fatal blood-related disorders and in need of a blood stem cell transplant,last_img read more

first_imgMen who eat leafy greens, dark orange and red vegetables, berries and drink orange juice may be at a lower risk of developing memory loss in older age, according to a study The findings showed that men who ate larger amounts of fruits and vegetables 20 years earlier were less likely to develop thinking and memory problems, whether or not they kept eating larger amounts of fruits and vegetables later. Men who consumed the most vegetables were 34 per cent less likely to develop poor thinking skills than the men who consumed the least amount of vegetables. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfMen who drank orange juice every day were 47 per cent less likely to develop poor thinking skills than the men who drank less than one serving per month. This association was mainly observed for regular consumption of orange juice among the oldest men, the researchers found. “One of the most important factors in this study is that we were able to research and track such a large group of men over a 20-year period of time, allowing for very telling results,” said Changzheng Yuan from Harvard University’s T H Chan School of Public Health in Boston. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsive”Our studies provide further evidence dietary choices can be important to maintain your brain health,” Yuan added. The study, published in the journal Neurology, looked at 27,842 men with an average age of 51 who were all health professionals. Participants also took subjective tests of their thinking and memory skills at least four years before the end of the study. A total of 55 per cent of the participants had good thinking and memory skills, 38 per cent had moderate skills, and seven per cent had poor thinking and memory skills. However, the study does not show that eating fruits and vegetables and drinking orange juice reduces memory loss.last_img read more