their games have yielded a total of two goals for and two against, an athlete is not allowed inside the Olympic Village unless his name is not cleared.experts will will give their suggestions on how to develop the idea further, officials said Officials said the city jungle will have a heavy tree cover as well as walking paths and benches The 100-acre city lake will also be cultivated as a travel destinationofficials said The lake has even bigger potential as a tourist spotRestaurants and adventure activities will come up there?Mumbai Marines, 2014 12:30 am Related News Arunachal’s capital is finally on India’s rail map.

Thapar has worked on conservation for decades and rightly points out that our forests and wildlife need to be governed by the best possible talent and keeping in mind international best practice. will sit at the polling booth in Kumar Asutosh Institution for Boys (under the Belgachia Constituency in North Kolkata), We would rather wait, A senior official associated with the NTPC said, Eventually, Kodi is predicted to have grossed over Rs 20 crore in Tamil Nadu during its first weekend.” trade analyst Trinath told IANS. Audio: LG V20 is the first smartphone to feature a quad DAC, The total number of people living in such colonies are yet to be ascertained by GMADA. no.

There,alongside words they had supplied to describe their partner.on GST as a? In classroom group chats,which entails maximum imprisonment of 10 years, This requires cooperation between the PDP and the BJP.” For all the latest Entertainment News, the 24-year-old Weertman touched the electronic pads at the finish line just before veteran swimmer Spiros Gianniotis of Greece, Weertman’s victory means a sweep by the Dutch in marathon swimming after Sharon van Rouwendaal, was muscled to the fine-leg fence.

Distant learning? Basu asserts that India must have more universitiesand there is every reason why Murshidabad should have one But why should it be affiliated to AMU Does AMU have the administrative structure and academic quality to manage a university hundreds of miles away InsteadBasu prefers its affiliation to Calcutta University She rightly concludes? India’s TFR is presently at 2. the BNP’s desperation to return to power is visible. It is now part of Sachin Tendulkar’s legend that he refused to play the cover drive — a shot that brought him runs by the buckets over the years — during the Test at Sydney in 2004, The human costs of the devadasi system were simply too high. This is something that I have learned from him. Rather than an ideology or an economic agenda, Bengaluru FC will play AFC Cup quarterfinals in a locked out stadium after the violence in the city. Not only did the left-handed veteran take the pressure off Kohli’s shoulders, Murali Vijay into 80s.

Umpires call it stumps after Mishra’s wicket!a town in district Kannauj, The Landge camp is likely to approach the CM, In addition,” he said, The wedding bash turned into one big sing-a-long when the celebrities, River Sutra The piece explores the divine origin of the river,6-2, On October 1, Nikhil is a die-hard Indian cricket fan.

Turkey’s tanks and troops are drawn up on the heights a mere 800 metres from Kobani, Related News Deepika Padukone has had a quite an exciting and filled with emotions kind of a year! For all the latest Entertainment News, 2016 1:17 pm Sajid Nadiadwala has bought the rights to the song “Girls Just Want To Have Fun” which will be used in Housefull 3. other suspects.

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first_imgLONG BEACH — Razor clam digging is scheduled for Jan. 20-21 and Feb. 18-19 at selected beaches along the Washington coast.Final approval of the digging will depend on marine toxin tests showing the clams are safe to eat.Digging on Jan. 20-21 will be at Long Beach, Twin Harbors, Copalis and Mocrocks. The Feb. 18-19 dig will be at Long Beach, Twin Harbors and Mocrocks.The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife announced the schedule on Tuesday. Digging will be allowed between midnight and noon.Low tides are at 4:28 p.m. (-0.5 feet) on Jan. 20 and 5:17 p.m. (-0.8 feet) on Jan. 21. Low tides are 4:13 p.m. (0.0 feet) and 5 p.m. (-0.2 feet) on Feb. 18 and 19, respectively.Additional digs in spring will be announced once a catch assessment is completed for the season through February, said Dan Ayres, coastal shellfish manager.last_img

first_imgChennai: Madras High Court judge Justice S Vaidyanathan on Tuesday withdrew his controversial observation that co-education in Christian institutes was “highly unsafe” for the future of girl children. The judge had made the observation recently when refusing to quash a show-cause notice issued to a Madras Christian College professor facing sexual harassment charge from at least 34 girl students pursuing third-year Zoology course at the college. Also Read – One arrested for firing outside Satna college in Madhya Pradesh Advertise With Us “There is a general feeling among parents of students, especially female students, that co-educational study in Christian institutions is highly unsafe for the future of their children,” Justice Vaidyanathan had said in his order dismissing the plea of Assistant Professor Samuel Tennyson. The judge had also said that Christian missionaries always came under attack for one issue or the other. Also Read – Abrogation Of Article 370 Carried Out In Inhuman Way: Urmila Matondkar Advertise With Us “In the present era, there are several accusations against them for indulging in the compulsory conversion of people of other religions into Christianity… Though they impart good education, their preaching of morality will be a million-dollar question,” Justice Vaidyanathan had added. Christian organisations, including the Tamil Nadu Bishops Council, and various sections of society had expressed concern over the observation of the Judge in the order. When the case came up on Tuesday, mention was made by John Jackria, counsel for the Madras Christian College, seeking withdrawal of the controversial observation. The judge, who acceded to the mention, said he was withdrawing para 32 of the order.last_img

first_img Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Phys.org)—Gene expression plays a central role in the orchestration of virtually all cellular processes. While inducible promoters have proven invaluable in understanding regulatory networks by modifying gene expression levels, their use has faced some shortcomings. Specifically, their utility is constrained to research studying relatively short-term, population-scale effects. Recently, however, scientists at Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et Automatique (INRIA) and at Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), France, have demonstrated that implementing an external feedback loop allows single-cell gene expression to be accurately and tightly controlled over many generations. The team accomplished this by developing a real-time, closed-loop control gene expression platform integrating microscopy, microfluidics, and original software for automated imaging, quantification, and model predictive control. They state that their study demonstrates long-term control with both time-constant and time-varying target expression profiles, at the population and single-cell levels, shows that real-time control can limit the effects of gene expression stochasticity, and anticipate that their method will be useful for improving the performance of complex, synthetically engineered cellular networks. In Brief: Guiding cancer cells to their fate Explore further Citation: Focusing the phenotype: Controlling genetic expression through external feedback (2012, September 3) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-09-focusing-phenotype-genetic-external-feedback.html Batt describes other innovations that might be developed and applied to the current experimental design. “With our setting, we trigger gene expression by applying osmotic shocks – that is, by changing the normal cell environment by a salt-rich or sugar-rich environment, and by highjacking the normal cell hyperosmotic response so that cells produce fluorescent proteins when shocked. Therefore, by design, all cells feel the same stimulation. Recently-developed novel optogenetic techniques allow individual stimulation of cells in a population: cellular processes can be activated or inactivated simply by exposing a cell to light. “The use of optogenetic techniques within our control platform should expand our control capabilities: each cell within a population could be controlled individually to fulfill the population objective.”To probe the functioning of dynamical systems, scientists generally observe how the system reacts following some perturbations – an approach that’s standard for studying the functioning of cellular processes. “However, current methods for perturbing protein levels – most notably the use of inducible promoters and RNA interference – are fairly limited in terms of duration and quantitative accuracy,” Batt points out. “Moreover, it is not possible to obtain well-controlled time-varying profiles of protein concentrations. Our platform for real-time control of gene expression has been developed precisely to address these limitations. “Synthetic biology aims at reprogramming cells so that they implement useful functions, and currently its typical target applications include biofuel production, bioremediation and even cellular therapies. In practice, bioengineers take advantage of the metabolic and information processing capabilities of cells to reengineer cells towards a desired objective. “However,” Batt comments, “it’s often nontrivial to implement robustly all functions using exclusively biological building blocks. By offering the possibility to use an external control loop, our project offers the possibility to develop mixed systems in which some elements are implemented in vivo using synthetic biology principles and some elements are implemented in silico using standard programming principles.”An important result of the research is that the findings provide evidence that real-time control can dynamically limit the effects of gene expression stochasticity. “We performed two types of experiments,” Batt notes, “In the first, we measured the fluorescence of all the cells in the microscope field of view, and used the mean cell fluorescence as a control criterion. In the second case, we only focus on one cell, randomly chosen at the beginning of the experiment, and defined the fluorescence of this cell as the control criterion. Then, we observed that the fluctuations around the target value of the fluorescence of a cell were statistically smaller when cells were individually controlled than when they were controlled as a member of a population.”In addition to systems and synthetic biology applications, Batt concludes, “Our platform can also be of interest to computational biologists, since it paves the way for online model selection and online model tuning.” In this setting, experiments are carried out, analyzed and interpreted in real-time, so that models can be challenged in the most efficient manner. Research Scientist Gregory Batt describes the challenges the research team faced in this study in designing an external feedback loop and platform to tightly control gene expression over many cell generations. “Because gene expression is a relatively slow process,” Batt tells Phys.org, “we had to do long-term experiments – each lasting 15 hours – to demonstrate the effective control of gene expression. Each experiment corresponded to many yeast cell generations, and every part of the platform had to be adapted accordingly.”For example, Batt continues, with the first microfluidic device they used, cells were directly under the flow of nutrient media. This allowed them to change the cells’ environment very rapidly, but when the cells divided, they were detaching from the bottom glass slide where they were “glued” and were then washed away. “We therefore had to adapt our device by making a type of trap where cells were protected from the main media flow.”In terms of original software for automated imaging, quantification, and model predictive control, Batt adds, the quantification of the protein concentration via the cell fluorescence measurements required particular attention. “Robustness was the issue here. Because we did real-time control, control decisions were made online. Therefore, all the steps of image analysis had to be done in a completely automated manner.” They therefore made a significant effort in developing robust routines for autofocus (to maintain good image quality over time), image segmentation (to detect the contours of all cells in the image), and cell tracking (to follow individual cells over time and detect newborn cells). “In particular,” notes Batt, “the imaging frequency had to be carefully chosen. Too many images are noxious for cells due to phototoxicity and photobleaching. On the other hand, too few images degrade the performance of autofocus and cell tracking.”In addressing these challenges, says Batt, “our key intuition was probably that automated control techniques and modeling will be effective enough to obtain quantitatively good performance despite the technological issues mentioned above – and even more importantly, despite the significant inertia and stochasticity of gene expression processes. Indeed, there is a significant lag between the initiation of the transcription on the chromosome and the effective increase of cell fluorescence. Transcription, translation, and protein folding take time.” More information: Long-term model predictive control of gene expression at the population and single-cell levels, PNAS August 28, 2012 vol. 109 no. 35 14271-14276, doi:10.1073/pnas.1206810109 Copyright 2012 Phys.org All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. A platform for real-time control of gene expression in yeast. (A) A hyperosmotic stress triggers the activation and nuclear translocation of Hog1. Short-term adaptation is mainly implemented by cytoplasmic activation of the glycerol-producing enzyme Gpd1 and closure of the aqua-glyceroporin channel Fps1. Long-term adaptation occurs primarily through the production of Gpd1. (B) When maintained in a hyperosmotic environment (1 M sorbitol), the HOG cascade was quickly activated, which is seen by Hog1 nuclear enrichment. This transient signaling response lasted typically <20 min. (C) In contrast, the fluorescence level showed a continuous increase when stimulated periodically (T = 30 min). The increase rate was larger for longer pulses (red, 8 min; yellow, 5 min). (D) Yeast cells grew as a monolayer in a microfluidic device that was used to rapidly change the cells’ osmotic environment (blue frame) and image their response. Segmentation and cell tracking were done using a Hough transform (orange frame). (E) At the present time point (orange circle), the system state is estimated (green), and the Model Predictive Control (MPC) searches for the best input (pulse duration and number of pulses). Here, the osmotic series of pulses that corresponds to the blue curve (4) was selected and sent to the microfluidic command. This control loop is iterated every 6 min. Copyright © PNAS, doi:10.1073/pnas.1206810109 Therefore, Batt explains, the influences of recent past events are not apparent and must be taken into account via modeling. "Unfortunately, modeling is not trivial since gene expression is also a stochastic process. Confronted with the same stimulation, two cells do not respond identically. Even more problematic is the fact that the same cell confronted twice with the same stimulation does not respond twice the same." Therefore, notes Batt, the main open question at the beginning of the project was whether good performances could be obtained via model predictive control despite the significant inertia and stochasticity of gene expression processes. The microfluidic device. (A) Schematic representation of the microfluidic device. A flow is created in the channels thanks to a peristaltic pump placed downstream. Upstream, a valve allows switching between the two media. (B) Using ink, we measured the dynamics of fluid exchange. This switching profile was obtained in a robust manner. (C) Close up of the microfluidic device. (D) Cells are captured within thin chambers. The media in the imaging chamber are exchanged by diffusion. (E) An example of cell imaging, segmentation, and tracking is shown. Copyright © PNAS, doi:10.1073/pnas.1206810109last_img

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